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中走丝断丝原因

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中走丝断丝原因

发布日期:2016-04-21 00:00 来源:http://niushirt.cn 点击:

1,钼(mu)丝钼(mu)丝的松紧程度

如(ru)果钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)安装太松,则钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)抖(dou)动厉害 ,不(bu)(bu)(bu)仅会(hui)(hui)造成断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si),而(er)且由(you)于(yu)(yu)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)抖(dou)动直接影响工(gong)件表(biao)面粗糙度(du)。但钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)也不(bu)(bu)(bu)能安装 得太紧(jin),太紧(jin)内应力(li)增大,也会(hui)(hui)造成断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si),因此钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)在(zai)切割过程中,其松紧(jin)程度(du)要(yao)适当 ,新安装的(de)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si),要(yao)先紧(jin)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)再(zai)加工(gong),紧(jin)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)时(shi)用力(li)不(bu)(bu)(bu)要(yao)太大。钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)在(zai)加工(gong)一段(duan)时(shi)间后(hou),由(you) 于(yu)(yu)自身的(de)拉(la)伸而(er)变(bian)松。当伸长量较(jiao)大时(shi),会(hui)(hui)加剧钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)振(zhen)动或出现(xian)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)在(zai)贮丝(si)(si)(si)(si)筒上(shang)重叠(die)。 使(shi)走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)不(bu)(bu)(bu)稳而(er)引(yin)起断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)。应经常检查钼(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)松紧(jin)程度(du),如(ru)果存在(zai)松弛现(xian)象,要(yao)及时(shi)拉(la)紧(jin) 。

钼(mu)丝(si)安装。钼(mu)丝(si)要按规定的(de)走向(xiang)(xiang)绕在(zai)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)筒(tong)(tong)上,同时固定两端。绕丝(si)时,一般(ban)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si) 筒(tong)(tong)两端各留10mm,中(zhong)间绕满不重叠,宽(kuan)度不少于贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)筒(tong)(tong)长度的(de)一半,以免电机换向(xiang)(xiang)频(pin)繁 而使机件加速损(sun)坏,也防止(zhi)钼(mu)丝(si)频(pin)繁参与切(qie)割而断丝(si)。

机床上钼(mu)丝(si)(si)引出处有挡丝(si)(si)棒(bang)(bang),挡丝(si)(si)棒(bang)(bang)是由两根红(hong)宝石制成的导向立(li)柱(zhu),挡丝(si)(si)棒(bang)(bang)不像(xiang) 导轮那样作滚动运动,他们直接(jie)与钼(mu)丝(si)(si)接(jie)触(chu),作滑(hua)动摩擦。因此磨损很快,使用不久柱(zhu) 体与钼(mu)丝(si)(si)接(jie)触(chu)的地方就会形成深沟,必须及时检查(cha)并进(jin)行翻转和(he)更(geng)换(huan),否则(ze)会出现叠丝(si)(si) 断丝(si)(si)。

2,运丝机构(gou)

中走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)线切割(ge)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)运丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou)主要(yao)(yao)是由贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、线架和导轮(lun)组成(cheng)。当运丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)下降(jiang)时(shi) (主要(yao)(yao)是传动(dong)(dong)轴(zhou)承),会(hui)(hui)引起贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)径向跳(tiao)动(dong)(dong)和轴(zhou)向窜动(dong)(dong)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)径向跳(tiao)动(dong)(dong)会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)电 极(ji)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)张力减小(xiao),造(zao)成(cheng)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)松,严重时(shi)会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)从导轮(lun)槽中脱出拉断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)向窜动(dong)(dong) 会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)排丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)不匀,产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)叠丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)现象。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)和轴(zhou)承等零件(jian)常因(yin)磨(mo)(mo)损(sun)而(er)产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)间隙,也(ye)(ye)容易(yi)(yi) 引起丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)抖动(dong)(dong)而(er)断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),因(yin)此必(bi)须(xu)及(ji)(ji)时(shi)更(geng)换磨(mo)(mo)损(sun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)和轴(zhou)承等零件(jian)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)换向时(shi),如没(mei)有 切断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)高频(pin)电源,会(hui)(hui)导致钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)在短时(shi)间内温度(du)过(guo)高而(er)烧断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),因(yin)此必(bi)须(xu)检查贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后端(duan) 的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)开关是否失灵。要(yao)(yao)保(bao)持贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、导轮(lun)转动(dong)(dong)灵活,否则在往返运动(dong)(dong)时(shi)会(hui)(hui)引起运丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)系(xi) 统振动(dong)(dong)而(er)断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)。绕丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)后空载走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)检验钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)是否抖动(dong)(dong),若发生(sheng)(sheng)抖动(dong)(dong)要(yao)(yao)分析原因(yin)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后 端(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)限(xian)位挡(dang)块(kuai)必(bi)须(xu)调(diao)整好,避(bi)免贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)冲出限(xian)位行(xing)程(cheng)而(er)断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)。挡(dang)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)装置中挡(dang)块(kuai)与快速运 动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)接(jie)触、摩(mo)擦(ca),易(yi)(yi)产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)沟(gou)槽并造(zao)成(cheng)夹丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)拉断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan),因(yin)此也(ye)(ye)需及(ji)(ji)时(shi)更(geng)换。导轮(lun)轴(zhou)承的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)磨(mo)(mo) 损(sun)将直接(jie)影响导丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)精(jing)(jing)度(du),此外,当导轮(lun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)v型(xing)槽、宝石(shi)限(xian)位块(kuai)、导电块(kuai)磨(mo)(mo)损(sun)后产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)沟(gou)槽 ,也(ye)(ye)会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)电极(ji)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)摩(mo)擦(ca)力过(guo)大,易(yi)(yi)将钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)拉断(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)。这种(zhong)现象一般发生(sheng)(sheng)在机(ji)(ji)(ji)床使(shi)(shi)用(yong)时(shi)间较(jiao)长 、加工工件(jian)较(jiao)厚、运丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou)不易(yi)(yi)清理的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下。因(yin)此在机(ji)(ji)(ji)床使(shi)(shi)用(yong)中应定期检查运丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou) 的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du),及(ji)(ji)时(shi)更(geng)换易(yi)(yi)磨(mo)(mo)损(sun)件(jian)。

3,工件

工(gong)件材(cai)料:对不(bu)经(jing)锻打、不(bu)淬火材(cai)料,在(zai)线切割(ge)加工(gong)前最(zui)好采用低温回火消除(chu)内应(ying) 力,因(yin)为如果工(gong)件的内应(ying)力没有得到消除(chu),在(zai)切割(ge)时,有的工(gong)件会开裂,把钼(mu)丝(si)碰断(duan)(duan); 有的会使间隙变形,把钼(mu)丝(si)夹断(duan)(duan)或弹(dan)断(duan)(duan)。如淬火后t8钢在(zai)线切割(ge)加工(gong)中(zhong)及易引起(qi)断(duan)(duan)丝(si)尽 量(liang)少(shao)用。切割(ge)厚铝材(cai)料时,由于排屑困(kun)难,导电块磨损较大(da),注意及时更换。

工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)装夹:虽然线切割加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)受力极(ji)小,但仍需牢固(gu)夹紧工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),防止(zhi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong) 过程(cheng)中(zhong)因工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)位置(zhi)变(bian)动造成(cheng)断丝(si)。同时(shi)要避免由于(yu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)自重和工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)材料的(de)(de)(de)弹性变(bian)形造 成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)断丝(si)。在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)厚重工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)时(shi),可在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)快要结束时(shi),用磁铁吸(xi)住将(jiang)要下落(luo)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),或 者人工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)保护(hu)下落(luo)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),使(shi)(shi)其平行缓(huan)慢(man)下落(luo)从(cong)而防止(zhi)断丝(si)。 4电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)参数(shu)(shu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)参数(shu)(shu)选择不当也 是引(yin)起(qi)断丝(si)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)个重要原因,所以(yi)要根据工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)厚度(du)选择合理的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)参数(shu)(shu),将(jiang)脉(mai)冲间隔拉开 一(yi)些,有利于(yu)熔化(hua)金属微粒的(de)(de)(de)排(pai)出,同时(shi)峰值电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)和空载电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压不宜过高,否则(ze)使(shi)(shi)单个脉(mai) 冲能量变(bian)大,切割速(su)度(du)加(jia)(jia)快,容(rong)易(yi)产生集中(zhong)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和拉弧,引(yin)起(qi)断丝(si)。一(yi)般空载电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压为 100v左右。在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)火花加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)弧放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是造成(cheng)负极(ji)腐蚀(shi)损坏的(de)(de)(de)主要因素,再加(jia)(jia)上间隙不 合适(shi),容(rong)易(yi)使(shi)(shi)某一(yi)脉(mai)冲形成(cheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)弧放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),只要电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)弧放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)集中(zhong)于(yu)某一(yi)段(duan),就会引(yin)起(qi)断丝(si)。

根据工(gong)件(jian)厚(hou)度(du)(du)选择合适的放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间(jian)(jian)隙:放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间(jian)(jian)隙不(bu)能(neng)太(tai)小,否则容易产生短路,也(ye)(ye)不(bu) 利于冷却(que)和(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)蚀物的排(pai)出;放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间(jian)(jian)隙过大(da)(da)(da),将影响表面粗糙度(du)(du)及加(jia)工(gong)速(su)度(du)(du)。当切割厚(hou)度(du)(du) 较(jiao)大(da)(da)(da)的工(gong)件(jian)时(shi),应尽量(liang)选用(yong)大(da)(da)(da)脉宽电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),同时(shi)放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)间(jian)(jian)隙也(ye)(ye)要大(da)(da)(da)一(yi)点,长而增强(qiang)排(pai)屑(xie)效(xiao)果 ,提高切割的稳定性。


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